The University of Tartu was founded by King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden in 1632, short after the occupation of the city by Sweden, and is thus Estonia's oldest university. It closed down in 1710 after the city became a part of Russia, but was refounded in 1802. It became the university of the Estonian nobility and intellectual bourgeoisie and the doctors and public servants, who were educated there, were active in the entire Russian Empire.
Today it is the national university of Estonia and the only full-scale university in the country. The Historic Ensemble of the University of Tartu got the European Heritage Label in 2015.